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英语动词不定式的用法(详细版) From:http://www.linewow.com/articl

  英语中的动词不定式在考试中是比较常见的。不定式在句子中可做主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和宾语补语。以下是动词不定时的用法解析。

  1)动词不定式做主语一般表示具体的某次动作。

  【例如】

  To complete the 30 storied building in one year was quite a difficult task.

  To do that implies taking responsibility.

  当主语较长,谓语较短时,常用it做形式主语,而将不定式放到谓语的后面。

  【例如】

  It is important for modern young people to master at least two foreign languages.

  It做形式主语,不定式放在谓语动词之后常用于下列结构中:

  a) It is+形容词(easy, important, difficult, foolish, inconvenient, unnecessary, right, wrong...)+( for/of sb.)+不定式

  【例如】

  It is essential to reserve a table in advance of Christmas Eve.

  It is hard to put my hopessintoswords.

  It is not easy to catch fish with your hands only.

  It is important for us young people to learn English and master it.

  b) It is+名词(a pleasure, a pity, a pleasant thing, one’s duty, an honor, a shame, a crime, no easy job...)+不定式

  It is a sheer waste of time to read that kind of trash.

  It is a pity to have to go without her.

  It is a glorious death to die for the people.

  c) It takes (sb.) some time (hours, months, days, a lot of time, patience...)+不定式

  It takes me three hours to learn English each day.

  It took them half the night to get home in the snow.

  2)动词不定式作表语不定式作表语常表示将来的动作,主语常常是表示意向、打算、计划的词,如wish, idea, task, purpose, duty, job等。

  【例如】

  The most important thing for one’s health is to have plenty of exercise.

  My chief purpose has been to point out the difficulties of the matter.

  The purpose of the organization is to greet all new comers to the city and to provide them with any necessary information.

  What I wanted was to get the work done as quickly as possible.

  3)动词不定式作宾语不定式常在下列动词后面作宾语:

  afford, agree, apply, arrange, ask, attempt, beg, begin, care, choose, claim, consent, demand, decide, desire, determine, expect, fail, hope, hesitate, hate, intend, learn, like, manage, mean, neglect, offer, plan, prepare pretend, promise, refuse, resolve, seek, tend, threaten, want等。

  【例如】

  I like to go out for walks in the warm sunshine in spring.

  My mother hates to move from place to place, for she feels tired.I decide to work hard and get doctor’s degree.

  The room is designed to be my study, but now it has to be used as a bedroom for the children.

  She failed to finish the assignment in time, and she was worried about it.

  There is a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means( )trouble. (CET-4 1997, 1)

  A) making

  B) to make

  C) to have made

  D)shavingsmade

  mean后面一般加不定式,所以A和D可以排除。根据句意,他看起来非常生气,他想找麻烦,不定式的动作还没有实施,应用一般式,因此答案为B。不定式作宾语还常用在下面结构中;主语+动词+it+形容词+不定式。

  【例如】

  We found it impossible to get everything ready in time. I think it important to learn English well in college. 使用这种句型的常见动词有:believe, consider, declare, feel, find, guess, imagine, prove, realize, suppose, think,等。

  4)“whword+不定式”结构不定式前加一个疑问代词(what, which, who, whom, whose)或疑问副词(where, when, how, why),以及连词whether构成特殊的不定式短语,其作用相当于一个从句,这样的不定式短语常在某些动词后面作宾语。

  常见的可以接这种动词不定式短语的动词有:

  know, see, decide, tell, ask, consider, discover, explain, findout, forget, guess, hear, imagine, inquire, learn, observe, perceive, remember, think, understand, wonder等。

  【例如】

  I couldn’t decide which book to choose. I can tell youswheresto get this book.They found it hard to decide whether to go swimming next Sunday or to visit Aunt Sally in New Year. “whword+不定式”结构除了作宾语外,还可以在句中作主语或者表语。

  【例如】

  When to start the program remains undecided. The question is how to put the plansintospractice.

  5)动词不定式作状语

  a)不定式作状语表示目的。或用于so as和in order之后,来强调这种目的。

  【例如】

  To learn a foreign language well, you must make painstaking efforts.

  Mother saved every cent she could spare to pay for my schooling.We must develop science and technology at high speed so as to raise scientific and cultural level of our country.

  Insgroupsto get a high mark in Band 4, he did a lot of exercises both in grammar and reading comprehension.

  b)动词不定式表示结果,特别是在so...as to, such...as to, only to...以及too...to等结构中的不定式表示结果。

  【例如】

  I rushed to the station as fast as I could, only to find the train already gone.

  She left her hometown with her beloved man, never to return.No one is too old to learn.

  Would you be so kind as to carry the luggage for me?

  c)动词不定式常用来修饰形容词,构成下列词组:be able to, be afraid to, be apt to, be bound to, be certain to, be easy to, be eager to, be fit to, be likely to, be ready to, be sure to, be unable to, be unwilling to, be willing to等。

  【例如】

  Chinese team is bound to win the World Cup.

  It is likely to rain today, for it is very cloudy.

  I am willing to help you with your homework, for we are friends.

  6)动词不定式作宾语补语不定式常跟在下列动词之后作宾语补语:ask, advise, allow, beg, cause, compel, command, enable, encourage, expect, feel, force, find, hear, have, inform, invite, let, make, mean, notice, order, permit, persuade, remind, require, request, teach, tell, urge, watch, warn, watch等。

  【例如】

  Because of the complexity of the modern equipments, most offices require secretaries to have specified training.

  He asked you to call him at ten o’clock.


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